Transportation of materials in plant is aided by the following processes

(1) translocation (2) transpiration (3) absorption of water and mineral salt (4) transport of water in the xylem tissue


Definition: translocation is the process by which manufactured food substances are transported from where they are manufactured to tissues where they are needed or stored.substances or material commonly translocated in plant include sugar,glucose or carbohydrates,oil,resins, proteins or amino acids, alkaloids and hormones

The function of these translocated substances include:

(i) proteins or amino acids which are used for building up new tissues

(ii)sugar,glucose or carbohydrates which provide energy for synthetic process

(iii)oil provides energy

(iv) alkaloids,resin and steroids bare protective in function and prevent herbivores from eating the plants as they are all waste products in plant


Transpiration is defined as the removal of excess water from plant into the atmosphere in form of water vapour.plants are capable of loosing excess water through

(1)the stomata in the leaves and this is called stomata transpiration

(ii) through the lenticels in the stem and this is called lenticular transpiration

(iii) through the cuticle of the leaf surface in what is called cuticular transpiration

Conditions affecting the rate of transpiration

(1)the size of the stomata pores:when stomata open due to turgidity of the guard cells, transpiration takes place while flaccidity of the cells causes the guard cells to close and prevent transpiration from taking place

(2) humidity:the higher the humidity of the atmosphere the slower the rate of the transpiration while the lower the humidity the higher the rate of transpiration

(3) temperature: increase in temperature gives rise to high rate of transpiration while low temperature gives rise to low rate of transpiration

(4) light :high light intensity result in high rate of photosynthesis and consequently leads to increase in temperature.thereby giving rise to high rate of transpiration and vice versa

Wind:the higher the rate or speed of wind the higher the rate of transpiration and vice versa

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